Diabetic Retinopathy And Cataract

I am a diabetic. I am told that I have a cataract. Do I have to get a retina check up before surgery?

Yes , one can have a cataract and also co existing diseases like diabetic retinopathy and also glaucoma. One should undergo a comprehensive evaluation of the  eye before cataract surgery.

I am a diabetic and I have been told that I have cataract, but was advised that I would require a retina evaluation after cataract surgery? Is this the correct approach?

NO. It is always advisable to undergo retinal evaluation before cataract surgery.

I was told that I have a cataract and diabetic retinopathy. Should I get retinopathy treated first or cataract first?

It is always advisable to  get the retinal assessment done before surgery and stage the retinopathy, take treatment for diabetic retinopathy if necessary before cataract surgery. Sometimes the cataract may be too dense to thoroughly assess and treat a retinal condition. Only in such cases cataract surgery can be done prior to retinal treatment.

I was told that I have cataract and diabetic retinopathy? Who gets to decide if diabetic retinopathy requires any treatment?

Retina specialist after evaluation and relevant investigations can decide if the retinopathy requires treatment before cataract surgery. Its advisable to have a consultation with a retina specialist before cataract surgery if there is retinopathy.

Can one assess retinopathy when there is a cataract?

Unless the cataract is very dense or a mature cataract with absolutely no view of the fundus , in most of the other cases one can assess  the retina and stage the diabetic retinopathy fairly accurately even in the presence of cataract.

What investigations are required to diagnose diabetic retinopathy in a patient?

Indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, Optical coherence Tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography, OCT angiography. They are done and interpreted by retina specialists.

What is the danger if diabetic retinopathy is not treated prior to doing a cataract surgery?

Cataract surgery may lead to progression of the diabetic retinopathy and may even worsen a pre-existing macular edema (swelling of the central part of the eye due to diabetes). Therefore where possible its always advisable to treat diabetic retinopathy first.

What is treatment required for diabetic retinopathy?

Depending on  the stage of retinopathy, the retina Specialist may advise retinal laser or intravitreal injection. In case the diabetic retinopathy has progressed to a tractional retinal detachment or a non clearing vitreous hemorrhage (bleeding inside the eye), a combined cataract and retina surgery is advised. Neoretina is a centre for excellence for such advanced […]

How different is cataract surgery in a patient with diabetes?

In diabetics the cataract progresses faster and hence cataracts are more dense than those in patients without diabetes. In some cases the pupil fails to dilate adequately. Since patients are at risk of diabetic retinopathy, early cataract surgery is advisable in diabetics so that their retinal evaluation is not hampered by the cataract and can […]

What precautions should be taken by diabetics before a cataract surgery?

Fasting blood sugar of less than 140 and post prandial of less than 200 is recommended. This reduces the chance of infection and helps in better healing.

Injections In Diabetic Retinopathy

I have been diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy and was advised injections in my eyes. Do I really need them?

Not all cases of diabetic retinopathy need treatment. Few cases wherein one has accumulation of fluid within the retinal layers(diabetic maculopathy), injections are advised.

Is there any other treatment modality other than injections?

Yes. Early stages of retinopathy do not warrant any treatment unless there is accumulation of fluid. Observation with strict control of sugars is what is needed. Fluid in the retinal layers that is not encroaching the centre of one’s retina or is away from the retinal centre can be observed or in severe cases can […]

When are injections advised in diabetic maculopathy?

In cases where the fluid accumulates at the center causing increase in retinal thickness and with visual disturbances.

What is the role of injections in diabetic retinopathy?

Injections help to reduce the fluid and also cause regression of new(abnormal) blood vessels that develop on the surface of the retina.

Do I need to take injections lifelong?

No. The role of injections is to reduce the fluid level. In the initial treatment phase one would need frequent injections. However one should also focus on controlling the metabolic parameters like hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol levels and any kidney disease(creatinine levels). Once a stable point is reached in the eye, one can avoid injections. However […]

I have been diagnosed with diabetic maculopathy and my doctor has advised injections in my eye? How many injections do I need?

The number of injections one would need varies from individual to individual. Several factors are to be taken into consideration like how our retina responds to the injection, maintaining stable blood sugars and other factors like hypertension, cholesterol and kidney disease.

Do I need to take injections monthly?

Yes. Monthly injections are mandatory until the retinal reaches a stable point. Usually the next injection is to be planned prior to the weaning off effect of the previous injection.

On an average how many injections one would need?

Though this varies, it usually ranges around 8-12 over a period of first two years.

Initially I was being treated with one type injection and have received about 5 injections. Still the fluid has not come down and now the doctor has changed the injection? What could be the reason?

Sometimes one’s retina does not respond to one type of drug. Ideally non response to injections has been defined as no reduction or minimal response to the drug only after 6 injections. However with the availability of newer drugs one might consider shifting you to a different drug early.

I have got retinal detachment secondary to diabetes and my doctor has advised injection in my eye prior to the surgery? Is it an ideal practice?

Injections prior to diabetic vitrectomies are given only in advanced cases wherein one’s retina has higher chances to bleed. Injections are given in these cases to reduce the risk of severe bleeding during surgery. However one must be cautious as the surgery has to be planned within 5 days from the date of injection. Sometimes […]

Are there no side effects with injections?

No procedure would ever come free of side effects. One needs to assess the risks and benefits before opting for any treatment. Side effects of injections are usually related to the eye like infection(sometimes vision threatening), cataract, increase in the intraocular pressure and rarely retinal detachment. Absorption of the minute amounts of drug given into […]

What are the different types of injections?

Overall there are two classes of injection: anti-VEGFs(anti- vascular endothelial growth factors) and steroids.

Which is the best injection?

Depending on your retinal condition, the amount of fluid, chronicity(since when the fluid is persisting), any systemic limitation your doctor would advise the injection which is appropriate to your eye.

Retinal Detachment

What is retinal detachment?

Retina is a light-sensitive layer lining most of the inside of the eye. It firmly adheres to the retinal pigment epithelium. This layer of tissue captures the images and converts them into electric signals which are transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain. The separation of the retina from the back side of the […]

What are the different types of retinal detachment?

there are 3 types of Retinal detachment a. Rhegmatogenous: This is the most common type. In this case, you either have a tear or a hole in your retina, which allows the fluid to flow or slip from the opening and get behind the retina. The retinal pigment epithelium and retina is separated by the […]

Who is at risk of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment?

High myopia ( high minus refractive error ) Complicated cataract surgery( vitreous loss, repeat surgery, posterior capsule rent ) A family history of retinal detachment An eye injury or trauma to your eye Other eye diseases such as uveitis, degenerative myopia, lattice or retinoschisis degeneration The inherited thinness of retinal tissue.

What are the symptoms of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment?

Since retinal tear is the primary event and subsequently a retinal detachment develops patient initially experience symptoms of retinal tear and subsequently of a frank retinal detachment Retinal tear causes symptoms of the sudden onset of flashes and floaters. Flashes are caused by the pull of the retina and floaters by the blood cells and […]

How is retinal treated?

Cryopexy: Small tears or holes are treated under the freeze treatment called cryopexy or laser surgery by the retina surgeon in the operation theatre. Photocoagulation: If you have a tear or hole in your retina and the retina is still attached this treatment is performed with a laser to fix your retina back to the […]

How is retinal detachment treated?

Vitrectomy: is the most frequently performed procedure to fix a retinal detachment The retina surgeon removes vitreous, a gel-like fluid from your eye under anesthesia. Fluid beneath the retina is exchanged with air that pushes it back the wall of the eye ( fluid gas exchange ). Laser photocoagulation or cryopexy is done to treat […]

How long does it take for a detached retina to heal?

A detached retina if untreated leads to total blindness which is a serious condition. When detachment occurs the signs like vision loss, blurred vision is seen. During this stage, the retina is pulled away from its actual position in the back of the eye. A tear is also seen when the retina is detached.

How serious is a detached retina?

A detached retina if untreated leads to total blindness which is a serious condition. When detachment occurs the signs like vision loss, blurred vision is seen. During this stage, the retina is pulled away from its actual position in the back of the eye. A tear is also seen when the retina is detached.

Can retinal detachment heal on its own?

No. retinal detachment never heals on its own. most of the cases would require an intervention( except exudative retinal detachment )and treatment has to be initiated on an emergency basis

Is retinal detachment surgery painful?

Surgery is done under anesthesia, so it’s not painful. After surgery, you may have some amount of pain in the eye. Your eye may be tender, red or swollen for a couple of weeks. During the surgery, if the doctor has used a gas bubble to compress your retina then you might have to keep […]

What is the most common cause of retinal detachment?

Retinal detachment can occur due to a sagging vitreous, a gel-like material that fills the inside of the eye, injury or advanced diabetes.

Can you fly with a detached retina?

Yes, you can fly with a detached retina. However, after retinal detachment surgery, until your doctor establishes that the gas bubble is absorbed,, you will be advised not to fly in an airplane or high altitude. Traveling or flying high in a gas-filled can build the pressure within the eye and may cause pain and […]

What is the success rate of retinal detachment surgery?

With a single operation of retinal detachment, the success rate initially was 90%. This percentage meant 1 in 10 people would need more than one operation. The reasons could be new tears occurring in the retina or the eye forming scar tissues which contract and tows off the retina again.

Is retinal detachment common?

In a referral center like ours, it is frequently seen and retinal detachment repair is one of the most frequently performed surgery. However, for a general ophthalmologist, the incidence of retinal detachment is not as high as a cataract

Can anyone go blind from a detached retina?

Yes. if the retinal detachment is not diagnosed on time and referred to a specialist and if the patient does not undergo surgery as per advice on an emergency basis there can be a partial or total loss of vision

Is retinal detachment an emergency?

Yes, it as an emergency/ urgency. general ophthalmologists who after suspicion refer these cases to retina specialists on an emergency basis. Retina specialists after examination, consultation and counseling prefer to perform the surgery at the earliest within days. Consulting a retina specialist is advisable at the earliest. The duration of time between the onset of […]

How do doctors check for a detached retina?

The doctor administers eye drops that widen the pupil. Retina is examined through indirect ophthalmoscopy where light is shone into the eye and a special lens is used to see the retina. Early diagnosis will help you save your eye from blindness.

How long is retinal detachment surgery?

retinal detachment surgery by either a vitrectomy or scleral buckling would last from 1 to 2 hours depending on the complexity of the case. Most of the vitrectomy surgeries in adults are done under a local anesthesia scleral buckling surgeries preferably done under general.

Can a detached retina be repaired?

Yes, retinal detachment can be repaired by surgery. There are no medical means of management. A laser is used as part of surgery to treat a retinal tear. most of the retinal detachments are either treated by a vitrectomy or scleral buckling surgery. They have a good visual prognosis if operated early.

How much does it cost to repair a detached retina?

The cost of a retinal surgery depends on the type of surgery and the stage of the disease. Please talk to our Counsellors Mrs. Lakshmi (Mobile: +91-9505263344) and Mrs. Sunitha (Mobile: +91-8885188855) to get the exact estimate of the cost.

Can retinal detachment be prevented?

Retinal detachment can be prevented if regular eye checkups are taken yearly or half-yearly. Early diagnosis is the key to curb vision loss (partial or total). Prompt treatment can be taken for a minor tear of the retina if you notice tiny specks or floaters. Visit a retina specialist early.

How is retinal detachment diagnosed?

Retinal detachment is diagnosed by ophthalmologist/retina specialist by doing indirect ophthalmoscopy after dilation of the pupil. Though it can be suspected by ophthalmoscopy confirmation and then the cause can be determined by a retina specialist by doing indirect ophthalmoscopy.

Can retinal detachment cause macular degeneration?

As retinal detachment progresses the risk of losing eyesight and even complications during surgery increases. The macula is essentially the center of the retina, damage to this part causes vision loss, defective, distorted or reduced sight. Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is caused due to old age or people aged above 60.

Is the macula part of the retina?

Yes, the macula is an essential part or center of the retina responsible for sharp detailed central vision. It is an oval-shaped pigmented area. These are the cells that are light sensitive and they provide detailed central vision.

Common Question for Retina

What symptoms should alert me to see a Retinal Specialist?

In case you experience a sudden loss of vision, distorted vision, floaters and flashes, peripheral shadows, high myopia etc rush to see the specialist. It is recommended for people belonging to the age group of 40+ years should get a retinal checkup every year.

Will my eyes be dilated on every visit? Moreover, for how long?

Dilating eye drops used for examination every visit. The effect of dilatation usually lasts from 3 to 4 hours depending upon its strength and the individual patient. Pupil dilation lasts longer in people with lighter coloured eyes, and among children, their eyes may stay dilated for more than 24 hours.

Can I drive after my retinal eye check-up?

It is to remember that you will be sensitive to light and your vision may be blurry. You should wear sunglasses after your exam. Your safety is important, so driving is not recommended till the effect of dilation lasts and you should arrange for someone to drive you home.

What is the difference between a vitreoretinal surgeon and a general ophthalmologist?

A general ophthalmologist is a specialist who performs general eye care including refraction and minor surgery as well as cataract surgery. A retina specialist or surgeon is highly trained in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of retinal problems such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular holes, macular puckers, and retinal detachments. A retina specialist trains […]

Any instructions for people who wear contact lenses?

Clean your contact lenses before wear and after removing – remember to wash your hands before you touch the lens, every time. If you are applying to makeup, just remember ‘Lenses First’. First, insert the lens then apply the makeup. Similarly, first remove the lens then the makeup. By wearing sunglasses, you can protect your […]

An Optometrist or an Ophthalmologist. Know the Difference | Neoretina

An Ophthalmologist is a Medical doctor who is specialized to diagnose, treat and perform eye surgeries. They attain their degree after completion of the Post-Graduate medical degree. They specialize in managing complex eye diseases and perform surgeries. An Optometrist is a health-care professional who is specialized to diagnose, manage and treat all visual disorders. They […]

Should I wear UV protection sunglasses when I go outside?

Yes, it is advisable to wear UV-protective sunglasses because these wraparound glasses with large lenses not only protect your eyes but also shield your skin, too. Sunglasses with complete UV protection can help reduce your risk of cataracts or complications from glaucoma. Have the habit of wearing glasses in the sun not as a fashion […]

Why do I need to see a retina sub-specialist?

A retina specialist who has specialized in ophthalmology but also sub-specialized in diseases and surgery of the vitreous body of the eye and the retina is known as retina sub-specialist. In cases where you are suffering from a condition affecting the retina that needs more extensive diagnostic testing or requires specialized treatment and monitoring, one […]

What are the ten layers of the retina?

(1) The inner limiting membrane (ILM); (2) The nerve fiber layer (NFL); (3) The ganglion cell layer (GCL); (4) The inner plexiform layer (IPL); (5) The inner nuclear layer (INL); (6) The outer plexiform layer (OPL); (7) The outer nuclear layer (ONL); (8) The outer limiting membrane (OLM); (9) The photoreceptor layer (PL), and (10) […]

What are the layers of the retina?

The neurosensory retina is composed of all the layers of the retina, except the outer pigmented layer (called retinal pigment epithelium). It comprises three main groups of neurons: (1) the photoreceptors, (2) the bipolar cells, and (3) the ganglion cells.

Are retinal holes and retinal tears the same?

No. Retinal holes are different from retinal tears retinal tears. retinal caused by pulling of the retina by the condensed vitreous whereas holes are formed by atrophic degeneration of a thinned retina. Retinal holes are asymptomatic whereas retinal tears cause symptoms of flashes. Retina specialists mostly treat retinal tears due to their high risk of […]

Is the macula part of the retina?

Yes. the macula is the part of the retina responsible for sharp, central straight-ahead vision. It is also important for color vision and contrast sensitivity. The retina is the light-sensitive layer lining the back of the eye.

How is retina check-up done?

For retina check-up, the pupil is dilated by instilling drops in both the eyes. The drops are put for every 15 mins up to 3-4 times, and it takes about 45 to 90 minutes to achieve the full Post dilation, the retina specialist examines your retina using slit lamp and indirect ophthalmoscopy using specialised lenses


How long does it take to become blind from glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a slowly progressing problem. On an average, untreated Glaucoma takes around 10-15 years to advance from early damage to total blindness. With an IOP (Intraocular Pressure) of 21-25 mmHg it takes 15 yrs to progress, an IOP of 25-30 mmHg around seven years and pressure more than 30 mmHg takes three years. Glaucoma […]

What can happen if you have glaucoma?

Glaucoma is the name of a group of eye diseases that leads to vision impairment or total blindness if left untreated as it is a disease of the nerve (optic nerve) that gives us all forms of the night – vision, colour vision, and side vision. The slow deterioration of side vision occurs preferentially in […]

Is glaucoma is curable?

Glaucoma is not curable but it is controllable, like diabetes and hypertension. To prevent or slow down further damage, regular eye examination, eye drops, laser procedures, pills or surgical operations as determined by your doctor can help. To detect advancement and to restrict further side vision loss, regular eye examinations are effective.

Can glaucoma be stopped?

Blindness can be prevented if it is recognised in the initial stage. Medications can slow down the progression of glaucoma by reducing elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as this restricts further damage to the optic nerve.

What is the first sign of glaucoma?

Most types of glaucoma have no symptoms. However, there is an acute variety that can cause severe eye pain, blurred vision, headache, nausea, and vomiting; this preceded halos around lights.

What is the best vitamin to take for glaucoma?

There are no specific vitamin supplements that prevent glaucoma. In this case, one needs to incorporate supplements like B-complex, Calcium, Zinc, Magnesium, Vitamin A, C and E in the diet.

Can glaucoma be caused by stress?

There are no studies that prove the role of stress as a contributing factor in causing glaucoma

What is the best eye drops for glaucoma?

This will be determined by your doctor, taking into account your age, your general health and how much damage already exists for a given eye pressure.

What is the best medicine for glaucoma?

This will be determined by your doctor, taking into account your age, your general health and how much damage already exists for a given eye pressure.

What foods to avoid if you have glaucoma?

No food item has been specifically implicated in the causation of glaucoma. Healthcare professionals cite restriction in consumption of certain foods. Such foods contain saturated fatty acids and Trans fats; excessive alcohol and coffee should also be avoided.

What is the common age for glaucoma?

Glaucoma can occur irrespective of age-group, but the risk increases with advancing age. Usually, open-angle glaucoma affects people aged above 40; primary congenital glaucoma affects 1 in 10,000, juvenile, open-angle glaucoma affects 1 in 50,000.

How do you keep glaucoma from getting worse?

Preventing glaucoma from getting worse is not difficult. Regular eye examinations and being regular with treatment (if prescribed) are important.

How serious is glaucoma?

Glaucoma occurs when the optic nerve is damaged; this damage is permanent and irreversible and can result in blindness either partially or entirely. However early diagnosis might save your eye from losing vision.

Can eye drops for glaucoma affect the heart?

Yes, certain eye drops can cause heart problem, they have the potential to reduce heartbeat and alter blood pressure. If you inform your doctor of your general health, such a drug will not be prescribed.

What is the normal pressure in the eye?

Normal pressure in the eye ranges from 6-21 mmHg. Glaucomatous damage of nerve can take place in normal pressures also

What causes high pressure in the eye?

The imbalance between the production of eye fluid called aqueous and its drainage can lead to an increase in eye pressure.

Is exercise good for glaucoma?

Being fit is always good. The consistent aerobic program is essential to maintain the normal pressure of the eye.

Can glaucoma kill anyone?

No glaucoma is not a life-threatening disease. However in advanced disease, due to extreme constriction of side vision, patients may experience the greater number of falls and accidents, if not careful.

Is glaucoma more common in males or females?

Certain types of glaucoma are commoner in females, like angle closure glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma

Can glaucoma progression be stopped?

Right treatment at the right time might help you control further damage to the eye. Lowering eye pressure can stop glaucoma progression.

Is green tea good for glaucoma?

There is no absolute conclusion about the research but yes a good hot cup of green tea might lower the risk of eye diseases. Catechins in green tea reduce harmful oxidative stress in the eye.

What are the symptoms of high eye pressure?

Only acute angle closure has symptoms like vomiting, blurred vision, extreme head, and eye pain, nausea and sudden sight loss. Otherwise, most glaucomas are symptomless in the early stages.

What is the best vitamin to take for glaucoma? Repeated

Vitamins like A, B found in green leafy vegetables etc.can be of greater advantage if consumed abundantly. Even vitamin C and E can also be added to the diet to prevent glaucoma.

What percentage of glaucoma patients go blind?

In 2013, the number of people (aged 40–80 years) with glaucoma worldwide was estimated to be 64.3 million, increasing to 76.0 million in 2020 and 111.8 million in 2040, disproportionally affecting people residing in Asia and Africa. Currently, nearly 12 million Indians suffer from it, with 1.1 million blind.

What time of day is eye pressure lowest?

The pressure of the eye (IOP) fluctuates according to the body position, usually, during 6am-8am, the pressure of the eye is high and lowest in the later part of the day.

Can Glaucoma Be Cured by Laser Techniques?

Depending on the type of, glaucoma it may be treated with laser techniques. Apart from laser treatment, it can also be controlled with eye drops and regular eye examination at your nearest eye clinics.

Where Can I Find More Information?

Glaucoma awareness video – ‘Stop theft: save sight left’ English version: Telugu version: Hindi version:

If my parent has glaucoma, will I get it?

It is not necessary you will get glaucoma if your parent has been affected, but you have a ten-fold higher risk of getting affected by the disease. Early and regular eye examination will save you from the devastating effects of glaucoma.

What is open-angle glaucoma?

Glaucoma is broadly divided into two groups – open angle and closed angle. In the open-angle, the drainage area of the fluid called aqueous is open and the damage that leads to glaucoma is microscopic. In, we can actually visualize the closure of the drainage area by a special clinical test called gonioscopy.

What can I do to protect my vision?

To protect your vision, have regular eye examinations at the eye clinic, eat healthy incorporating green leafy vegetables and colored fruits – like papaya, plums and exercise regularly. Keep a check on changes occurring in the eye like blurry vision, irritation etc.

How is glaucoma diagnosed?

Glaucoma can be diagnosed by using several clinical tests like tonometry (measuring the pressure of the eye), gonioscopy (visualizing the drainage angle) and most importantly, fundoscopy (visualizing the optic nerve). Investigations such as visual field test for side vision, corneal thickness (pachymetry) are also done. Sometimes, optic nerve imaging is ordered (OCT) and at yet […]

Is glaucoma life-threatening?

Though glaucoma is not life-threatening, it does affect the normal lifestyle of the patient. There is a constant fear about the future, the vision impairment affects employment, driving, and independence. Glaucoma can be controlled with timely treatment. Only acute angle closure may be prevented with a laser treatment.

What is normal tension glaucoma?

In this condition, optic nerve damage and side vision loss occur even when eye pressure is normal.

How often do I need to come to the clinic if I have glaucoma?

This will be determined by your doctor. Once glaucoma is controlled and stabilized, a visit to the eye doctor is required every 3-4 months. Further advancement of glaucoma can be controlled with regular clinic visits.

What parts of the eye are involved in glaucoma?

The key eye part affected by glaucoma is the optic nerve head, which forms an essential part of the central nervous system that transfers message to the brain for visuals.

How is intraocular pressure related to glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a complex and multifactorial eye disease with certain characteristics such as vision loss and optic nerve damage. Usually increased (IOP) intraocular pressure is present in glaucoma, but patients with normal IOP can also develop glaucoma.

Are there different types of glaucoma?

Glaucoma is of several types but broadly divided into 2 groups depending on the appearance of the drainage angle – and Angle closure are two main types of glaucoma.

What is the optic nerve?

The optic nerve is also known as the second cranial nerve. This nerve connects the eye to the brain, the main task of this nerve is to transmit visual information to the brain through the retina and converts the same into images.

What is included in the ophthalmic examination for glaucoma?

Tests that are specific to glaucoma are 1. Tonometry (measurement of eye pressure) 2. Gonioscopy (viewing of the drainage angle) 3. Bio-microscopic fundoscopy (viewing of the optic nerve head in 3-D at the slit lamp with the special lens)

How is glaucoma associated with ocular trauma?

Ocular trauma can cause glaucoma both in the acute phase, and also years later. This latter is caused by damage to the drainage angle due to trauma.

What is pigmentary glaucoma?

Pigmentary glaucoma is open-angle glaucoma which can develop in men during their 20s or 30s. It is inherited and myopic patients are more prone to pigmentary glaucoma.

What is neovascular glaucoma?

Neovascular glaucoma is categorized as secondary glaucoma which occurs secondary to retinal disease, most common being diabetic , in which new abnormal blood vessels close the angle of the eye causing a blockage.

What is congenital glaucoma?

Congenital glaucoma is also known as infantile or childhood glaucoma. This is a rare condition and is detected in the first year of life.

What laser therapy available for open-angle glaucoma?

Open-angle glaucoma is also known as primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), for this Laser Trabeculoplasty (ALT) may be done to lower the pressure inside the eye. An alternative to eye drops or pills, this laser therapy is moderately effective in the short-term and safe to treat open-angle glaucoma.

What surgical therapy available for glaucoma?

Several surgical options are available. The goal of surgical therapy is to control the further progression of glaucoma. The loss that has already occurred, cannot be regained.

How often should a person with glaucoma see an ophthalmologist?

Patient with glaucoma should religiously visit an ophthalmologist every 4-6 months.

Can iritis cause glaucoma?

Iritis affects the front of the eye, this could result from a genetic or underlying systemic condition of the eye or even due to infection. If left untreated, iritis can lead to glaucoma.

What is inflammatory glaucoma?

Uvetic or inflammatory glaucoma is a type where ocular inflammation can cause intraocular pressure rise and subsequent glaucoma.

What is the first sign of glaucoma?

Glaucoma develops gradually, so symptoms do not occur for the majority of patients.

How can I tell if I have glaucoma? Are there any symptoms?

Glaucoma has been called the ‘sneak thief of sight’ as in the early stages of the majority of cases there are no symptoms, except in the acute variety when patients may complain of colored halos preceding pain and loss of vision. However, in the majority of chronic glaucoma cases, patients can tell only after side […]

How does it cause blindness?

Glaucoma slowly affects side vision (peripheral vision) first. Glaucoma occurs in both eyes, but usually unequally, as a result, the better eye keeps ‘filling-in’ for the eye that is affected more. Due to extreme constriction of side vision tunneling of vision occurs. Central vision continues to remain relatively-good the very last stage. That is why, […]

Does glaucoma run in families?

Yes, chronic glaucoma is 4-10 times commoner in blood relations of patients diagnosed with glaucoma.

Is blood pressure and eye pressure the same?


How does blood pressure affect eye pressure?

Blood pressure can affect eye pressure, but only at sustained high levels. So it is important that hypertension is controlled. Low levels of blood pressure (hypotension) can compromise the blood supply to the optic nerve head and also contribute to further damage.

How is glaucoma treated?

Current treatment of glaucoma is directed towards control of eye pressure. We can do this by means of eye drops (sometimes tablets for short duration), laser and glaucoma surgery. For the majority of chronic open angle disease it is controlled with eye drops; when this fails then laser or surgery is contemplated. For all angle […]

How will I know if treatment is working?

Only your Ophthalmologist will be able to tell and therefore it is vital to attend follow-up appointments and does not stop using your eye drops as prescribed.

What else can I do doctor? What lifestyle changes do I need to make?

Glaucoma is not a very lifestyle sensitive disease. However, if you practice yoga, head down position or “shirsasana” should be avoided. Also, consumption of more than 4 standard glasses of water (approx.1 liter) at one time should be avoided.


How long does it take for the eye to heal after cataract surgery?

If you have had cataract surgery, it usually requires 3 weeks to heal completely. If you are asked to wear glasses, you cannot wear it until the eye has completely healed.

When should you have cataracts removed?

Not all cataracts need to be removed. But if you experience lack of clarity in vision during everyday tasks like driving, playing etc, it is time you consider getting it removed.

What happens if cataracts are left untreated?

If the cataract is left untreated, it impacts your routine life leading to danger of falls due to poor vision. In worst conditions, the cataract can leave you blind if ignored for a long time.

How long does it take to recuperate from cataract surgery?

It takes around 3 weeks to recuperate from cataract surgery.

Can you go blind from cataract surgery?

Cataract surgery is the safest surgery of all surgeries being performed in the world. The success rate of a Cataract surgery is 98%. However, every surgery entails risks and cataract surgery is no exception. Endophthalmitis is the only complication that can cause permanent vision loss. Its incidence is less than 0.04% to 0.2% in individuals […]

How should I sleep after cataract surgery?

After cataract surgery, it is advisable to avoid sleeping on the side of the operated eye for 24 hrs. Rubbing your eye or even water can aggravate the chances of infection. Post surgery, you should be careful for at least 2 weeks.

How long does it take for blurriness to go away after cataract surgery?

The blurriness (if any) after cataract surgery generally goes away within a week. If it still persists you must consult your doctor.

What is the average age for cataract surgery?

The average age of cataract surgery depends on whether you’re residing in a tropical or a cold climate and the amount of sun exposure. People living in tropical climates like India tend to cataracts at an earlier age. Having said that, the average age for cataract surgery would be 65. A US-based survey in 2004 […]

Do cataracts grow back?

Once removed, cataracts never grow back. The posterior capsule, which is the support for the implanted intraocular lens (artificial lens) might opacify in some individuals after months to years after cataract surgery. This opacification of the capsule can be treated with a LASER procedure (Nd: YAG capsulotomy) in the outpatient department. Once done, the capsule […]

Is cataract surgery painful?

No, cataract surgery is not a painful procedure. It is always done under local (anesthetic injected near the eye) or topical (anesthesia with eye drops). Pressure sensation may persist after anesthesia, but patients do not generally experience any pain.

What are the dangers of cataract surgery?

The risks involved in cataract surgery are retinal detachment, glaucoma, dislocation of artificial lens, inflammation, bleeding and infection.

What are the side effects of cataract surgery?

There are no side effects of cataract surgery. There might be late complications like swelling of the macula (central portion of the retina), inflammation or opacification of the posterior capsule where the artificial lens is placed. These complications can be treated and vision restored.

Can anyone take a shower after cataract surgery?

You can take a shower after cataract surgery but water shouldn’t enter your eye, which means you cannot take a head bath for at least a week after cataract surgery.

Can I wear my old glasses after cataract surgery?

Protective glasses are prescribed after cataract surgery. But for the purpose of reading, you can use your old glasses for up to 3 weeks until the refractive power of the operated eye stabilises, after which your doctor will prescribe new glasses.

How long does it take for a vision to stabilise after cataract surgery?

Vision or the refractive power of the eye stabilizes by 3 weeks after cataract surgery, at which point, the doctor will prescribe new glasses, as required.

Is cloudy vision normal after cataract surgery?

There might be a little cloudiness of vision for a few hours to a day after cataract surgery but it generally doesn’t persist beyond a week after surgery. In case there is persistent blurriness you must consult your doctor.

Can anyone watch TV after cataract surgery?

Yes, you can watch TV after cataract surgery provided there is no blurriness in your vision.

FAQ, Preventive measures post-cataract surgery | Neoretina

For safety, it is better not to cook for at least a week after cataract surgery.

How soon can I drive after cataract surgery?

Generally, after cataract surgery, the vision is quite clear, and you can drive after 24 hrs of the surgery. It is safe to get a doctor’s permission to know if you are fit to drive.

Which lens is best for cataract surgery replacement?

During cataract surgery, the affected lens is replaced with a new lens to suit your eye. There are various types of lenses to choose from depending on the condition of your eye and your preference based on your lifestyle. Monofocal lenses correct only distance vision, you will still need glasses for reading after cataract surgery. […]

Can the lens move after cataract surgery?

The lens does not move after cataract surgery. However, the lens might dislocate if there was a posterior capsular rupture or damaged zonules during the surgery and the lens could not be adequately supported during surgery. In such cases, the dislocated lens can be removed and another lens placed through an alternative, more stable procedure.

Are cataracts found only in older people?

Senile or age-related cataract is the most common form of cataract and is found in older people. However, there are other forms of cataract like congenital cataract found in children, complicated cataract found in patients with chronic uveitis,   cataract, traumatic cataract, etc. which can be found in patients of all age groups

What is a “secondary cataract”?

A secondary cataract is opacification of the posterior capsule which is the support where the intraocular lens is placed after cataract surgery. This can be easily corrected with LASER treatment (Nd: YAG capsulotomy) in the outpatient department. Once treated, it does not recur.

How much does cataract surgery cost?

The cost of a cataract surgery depends on the choice of intraocular lens and type of surgery. Please talk to our Counsellors Mrs. Lakshmi (Mobile: +91-9505263344) and Mrs. Sunitha (Mobile: +91-8885188855) to get the exact estimate of the cost.

Can cataract surgery be performed on both eyes at the same time?

It is possible to perform cataract surgery in both eyes at the same time but generally, for safety, only one eye is operated at a time. The other eye can be operated after a week of the first eye surgery.

Can cataract surgery fix astigmatism?

Yes, cataract with co-existing astigmatism can be corrected by placing a toric intraocular lens during cataract surgery.

Can I have cataract surgery after LASIK?

Yes, cataract surgery can be done after LASIK and most other refractive surgeries.

Can I have cataract surgery if I have glaucoma?

Yes, you can have cataract surgery if you have co-existent glaucoma. In fact, cataract surgery is the treatment of choice for certain lens induced glaucomas wherein a hypermature cataract causes glaucoma due to protein leak or a bulky cataract causes pupil block and causes a rise in intraocular pressure. In such cases, cataract surgery reduces […]

Cataract treatment: is surgery the only answer?

Yes, surgery is the only answer to cataract treatment. In cases of early cataract with good vision, where the patient wants to defer the surgery, glasses can be prescribed until the cataract progresses and the patient decides to get operated.

Does cataract surgery cause dry eyes?

In cataract surgery few minor incisions are made near the cornea, these incisions without any stitches heal quickly. Usually, cataract surgery does not cause dry eyes but it might aggravate pre-existing dryness. This is generally not a serious problem and can be easily managed with lubricating eye drops.

Will cataract surgery improve my night vision?

Yes, cataract surgery improves your night vision to a larger extent. Night vision improvement will enable you to drive, walk in low lights too. As the cataract advances the vision loss worsens, surgery might help restore your vision back.

My eye care provider said I have mature or advanced cataracts. What does this mean?

When the natural lens in the eye becomes cloudy restricting you to see with clarity that means you have developed a cataract. Mature or advanced cataract means that cataracts have developed to the extent that the lens appears to be mostly opaque making it difficult to see things clearly.

My doctor says I have to wait for a while before removing my cataract. Why?

If the cataracts are not disrupting the quality of your life and your day to day activities then the doctor might suggest you wait for a while before having them removed. The suggestion is made only when the cataract is in a very early stage and visual acuity is close to 100%.

How long be anyone in the hospital for cataract surgery?

The procedure for inserting an intraocular lens or removing a cataract hardly takes about 15 minutes. The entire time consumed between arriving at the hospital and the surgery will take around half a day.

When can anyone use makeup after surgery?

No, it is better to avoid using makeup after cataract surgery for at least 3 weeks for fear of infection.

What is the difference between a standard monofocal lens and a premium lens?

Monofocal /standard lens improves vision only for distance, and the patient might still have to use glasses for near vision. Whereas premium/multifocal lens offers a better range of vision after refractive lens replacement or the cataract surgery. They improve near and far vision without the use of glasses.

What is the function of the uveal tract?

It is the source of blood flow to the ocular tissues. It is the source of aqueous humour (fluid that fills the inside of the eye) and maintenance of intraocular pressure. It constitutes the blood-aqueous barrier and prevents undesired blood products from reaching the eye. The musculature of the ciliary body plays a role in […]

What is the uveal tract made of?

The uveal tract is a composition of a layer of tissue situated between the outer layer (sclera and cornea) and the retina (inner layer) of the eye. The front part of the uveal tract contains the iris and the posterior part contains parts of the ciliary body and choroid.

Is uveitis a disease?

Uveitis is a disease which might be a local inflammation of the eye or an ocular manifestation of a systemic disease which may be infectious (viral, bacterial) or non-infectious (autoimmune conditions, certain arthritic conditions).

How serious is uveitis?

Uveitis can be serious if it goes untreated or is inappropriately or inadequately managed without identifying the underlying cause. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness. However, chances of visual recovery are very good if the patient receives expert treatment in time and the condition is managed adequately and appropriately. The goal […]

Can you go blind from uveitis?

Uveitis is an eye condition that can be dangerous if left untreated. It is not only limited to uvea it also affects optic nerve, retina, vitreous and lens that may severely reduce the vision or even make you blind. The inflammation caused due to underlying causes and complications of the disease may lead to total […]

Is uveitis an emergency?

Uveitis is generally not a medical emergency unless there is an acute,  painful red eye or the eye pressure is dangerously high. In such emergent cases, treatment can be sought with a general ophthalmologist for immediate control of inflammation and eye pressure. However, in most other cases it is recommended to consult a uvea specialist […]


What is the uvea of the eye?

The constituents of uvea of the eye are Iris (colored part of the eye) the choroid layer (layer of the blood vessel and connective tissue between the retina and the sclera) and the ciliary body which secretes aqueous humor (the transparent liquid which maintains the eye pressure) into the eye.

Where is the uvea?

The middle layer of the eyeball is called uvea, it lies beneath (sclera) the white part of the eye. It looks like a grape with reddish-blue color when dissected. It is made of the Iris, the ciliary body and the choroid.

What structures make up the uvea?

Uvea is made of 3 structures: Iris, ciliary and Choroid. The iris is at the front of the eye, the ciliary body which helps the lens to focus and keep it healthy and the choroid is a group of blood vessels passing essential nutrients to the retina.

Can uveitis be caused by stress?

Uveitis is an inflammatory eye condition often related with an autoimmune disease. Although stress as such does not cause uveitis, it can worsen an attack or cause the relapse of the disease.

What causes uveitis flare-ups?

Uveitis can flare up with inadequate treatment, stress, or underlying systemic disease. Proper maintenance treatment with systemic immunosuppression in the form of pills, after initial control of uveitis, is essential to prevent flare-ups.

Can uveitis be cured?

Complete cure of uveitis is not an impossible task provided the goal of emergency therapy is achieved on time. Infectious uveitis can be cured with appropriate antibiotic therapy. In autoimmune or non-infectious uveitis, the treatment can suppress the inflammation until and unless it is healed by your body’s healing process depending on how long the […]

What is the most common cause of uveitis?

Most common causes of uveitis depend on the age, gender, geographical location and immune status of the patient. Most common causes include HLA B-27 related spondyloarthropathy, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, etc.

Is uveitis is contagious?

No uveitis is not contagious.

How does uveitis lead to glaucoma?

Uveitis can cause increased eye pressure when swollen debris blocks the trabecular meshwork causing low fluid outflow from the eye, further resulting into glaucoma. This can be prevented by adequate control of inflammation by the doctor. Less commonly, steroids used for the treatment of uveitis can lead to glaucoma in susceptible patients (steroid responders).

What autoimmune disease causes uveitis?

Autoimmune disease is a condition in which the body’s immune system attacks its own healthy cells. Common autoimmune diseases causing uveitis are HLA B27 related spondyloarthropathy, Behcet’s disease, sarcoidosis, connective tissue diseases, SLE, Crohn’s disease, etc.

Does uveitis cause vision loss?

Yes, uveitis can cause vision loss if there is a delay in treatment when treatment is inadequate to control inflammation, recalcitrant cases and mostly due to complications of uveitis like permanent damage to an optic nerve or macular scar (scar in the center of the eye).

Is uveitis genetic?

The role of genetics cannot be denied in the causation of uveitis. It’s role might especially be important in autoimmune or non-infectious uveitis.

What is hypertensive uveitis?

Hypertensive uveitis is when the intraocular pressure rises due to inflammation in the eye and can lead to optic nerve damage or glaucoma. Adequate control of inflammation can reverse the raised intraocular pressure to normal. However, if the optic nerve is damaged, the reduction of intraocular pressure will only help to stop the progression of […]

Is uveitis unilateral or bilateral?

Uveitis may be unilateral or bilateral depending on the cause. Some uveitic entities are characteristically unilateral like HLA B27 related uveitis or Fuch’s uveitis.

Can an optometrist diagnose uveitis?

Yes, an optometrist can recognize the clinical picture of uveitis but he may not be able to make an etiological diagnosis.  

Common Question for Eye Treatment

Would the doctor personally conduct the eye-tests along with the surgery?

Yes, an Ophthalmologist will perform the necessary tests. Once the tests are done, the surgery if needed will be performed only by the ophthalmologist.  

What am I actually getting for the fees?

Vision, refraction, intraocular pressure check, slit-lamp and dilated retinal examination, doctor consultation and glass and medical prescription which is valid for 7 days or 2 visits  

Will you be offering me follow-up care?

Yes, absolutely post-treatment the doctors will recommend follow-up consultation based on the severity of your eye condition.  

What should I expect on my first visit?

You will be examined for vision, refraction, intraocular pressure check, slit-lamp and dilated retinal examination, doctor consultation, any eye scans if required and glass or medical prescription or advise on laser or surgery as needed.

Do you perform treatments in the OPD?

Yes, procedures like superficial foreign body removal, suture removal, retinal laser, anterior segment Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy and iridotomy are routinely done on an OPD basis.

Why do you have to check my vision today? You just checked it last week!

Based on the patient’s medical condition, his vision can change for multiple reasons. Hence, vision is usually checked at every visit

Why do I have to wait so long to see the Doctor when I got here on time? How long will my appointment take?

Every diagnosis, consultation differs based on the nature of the problem. Hence it is difficult to allow a fixed time for each patient. Therefore, in a place like Hospital people are requested to be patient for better diagnosis and treatment.

Why do you always ask me what medications I am taking when most are over the counter supplements?

It is important to know what medications the patient is on as it helps the doctor be careful with drug interactions while prescribing medication and take necessary precautions while advising surgery.

Does insurance usually cover vitrectomy surgery and will your hospital file my claims?


Are there any early warning signs for diabetic retinopathy?

Diabetic Retinopathy progresses gradually. You may detect any symptoms in the early stages but eventually, as the condition progresses, the patient may experience symptoms like  Blurred vision, Spots or dark strings floating in his/her vision (floaters) etc.

Will my eyes dilated in every visit?

Yes, if you are suffering from diseases of the posterior segment of the eye: retina/uvea, or if you have systemic conditions which might affect the retina eg: diabetes, hypertension, or if you have symptoms that point towards a retinal or optic nerve involvement, you will be dilated at every visit.

Can anyone drive after the retinal exam?

It is better not to drive after a retinal exam when your pupils are dilated. There is significant glare which might make driving risky.

What are symptoms of a torn retina/retinal tear?

Symptoms of torn retina/retinal detachment can include the following: A sudden increase in size and number of floaters (black or gray specks, strings, or cobwebs that drift about when you move your eye) A sudden appearance of flashes (initial stage).

What are the symptoms of a retinal detachment?

A shadow appears in the periphery (side) of your field of vision. a gray coloured curtain moves across your field of vision; A sudden loss of your vision.