The vitreous of the eye is an avascular, gelatinous and hydrated body that contains 98% water. The characteristics of this layer changes with age. With the advancing age, the vitreous becomes more liquid and mobile. Hence, the most effective way to provide high concentrations of therapeutic agents into the eye is through targeted delivery systems.
Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the modern world. It is the leading cause of poor vision and blindness. Diabetic Macular Edema (DME), a complication of diabetes, contributes greatly to this low vision or blindness. It affects up to 50% of people diagnosed with diabetes.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common chronic disease of the eye which affects millions of people across the world. As the name suggests, it is an eye disorder that affects the macula and hence the central vision. It causes significant disability among people of age 50 and older. It severely threatens the vision and is a leading cause of poor vision or irreversible vision loss in older people.
The macular hole occurs most frequently in the elderly. Early detection and early treatment ensures better chances of gain in visual acuity.
Cystoid macular oedema is a painless condition which affects the macula – the central part of the retina (Figure 1.1 and 1.2). This condition occurs when fluid collects in the tissue at the back of the eye, including the area responsible for our central vision. This accumulation of multiple pockets of fluid as cysts in the macular area, is known as cystoid macular oedema.
The light-sensitive layer of retinal cells converts light into electrical signals which are then sent to the brain where they are turned into the images we see. A brilliant network of tiny blood vessels constantly supplies blood to the retina.
Sub-threshold laser refers to the application of sub-visible burns during retinal laser therapy, thereby producing an effect only at the cellular level without causing any visible clinical burns.
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the developing retina among low birth weight, preterm infants potentially leading to blindness in a small but significant number of those infants. ROP is getting noticed due to rapidly improving neonatal care standards, which makes the survival of such premature children a reality.
The retina is the thin layer of tissue that is light-sensitive. This layer lines the inside of the back of the eye. It sends visual messages to the brain via the optic nerve. In some people, the retina detaches; it is pulled or lifted from its normal position. Retinal breaks or tears in small retinal areas can result in retinal detachment.
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common vascular disorder of the retina and common cause of vision loss. It is also a common cause of blindness from retinal vascular disease,