Vitrectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vitreous gel that fills the posterior chamber/cavity of the eye is removed to treat eye problems associated with retina or the vitreous. This surgery offers better access to the retina of the eye for different treatments like repair of retinal detachments, removal of scar tissue and treatment of macular holes.
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology is an emerging technology and is used to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional images of the nerve layer on the inside of the eye, the retina. It is a non-invasive imaging technology. This technology provides images on the micron scale in real time. The retinal layers can be differentiated, and the thickness of the retina can be measured with optical coherence tomography. With the help of such sharper and clearer results, an ophthalmologist can detect and diagnose various retinal diseases and also emerging problems early.
The vitreous of the eye is an avascular, gelatinous and hydrated body that contains 98% water. The characteristics of this layer changes with age. With the advancing age, the vitreous becomes more liquid and mobile. Hence, the most effective way to provide high concentrations of therapeutic agents into the eye is through targeted delivery systems.
Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the modern world. It is the leading cause of poor vision and blindness. Diabetic Macular Edema (DME), a complication of diabetes, contributes greatly to this low vision or blindness. It affects up to 50% of people diagnosed with diabetes.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common chronic disease of the eye which affects millions of people across the world. As the name suggests, it is an eye disorder that affects the macula and hence the central vision. It causes significant disability among people of age 50 and older. It severely threatens the vision and is a leading cause of poor vision or irreversible vision loss in older people.
The macular hole occurs most frequently in the elderly. Early detection and early treatment ensures better chances of gain in visual acuity.
Cystoid macular oedema is a painless condition which affects the macula – the central part of the retina (Figure 1.1 and 1.2). This condition occurs when fluid collects in the tissue at the back of the eye, including the area responsible for our central vision. This accumulation of multiple pockets of fluid as cysts in the macular area, is known as cystoid macular oedema.
The light-sensitive layer of retinal cells converts light into electrical signals which are then sent to the brain where they are turned into the images we see. A brilliant network of tiny blood vessels constantly supplies blood to the retina.
Sub-threshold laser refers to the application of sub-visible burns during retinal laser therapy, thereby producing an effect only at the cellular level without causing any visible clinical burns.
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the developing retina among low birth weight, preterm infants potentially leading to blindness in a small but significant number of those infants. ROP is getting noticed due to rapidly improving neonatal care standards, which makes the survival of such premature children a reality.