Eyes deliver four-fifths of the information that our brain receives. However, when it comes to eye diseases, one might miss marking any symptoms, since they are not easily detected or may be painless. There are several common and rare eye conditions which affect vision. A healthy retina is essential for clear vision. Retinal diseases are common as they can affect any part of the eye retina. As retinal diseases affect the vital eye tissue, it causes serious problems, affects vision, some even leading to blindness.
A cataract is clouding of the natural crystalline lens of the eye. This obstructs the passage of light onto the retina at the back of the eye and affects the person’s ability to see clearly. Generally, cataract is seen in old age and such type of cataract is known as a senile cataract. If left untreated cataract leads to blindness.
Vitrectomy refers to a surgical procedure which involves removal of the vitreous gel from the eye. It is a surgical procedure where small ports are created to introduce instruments into the eye and then the surgery performed with the aid of a vitrectomy machine which delivers high speed cutting to the cutting probe and a light source for visualisation of the inside of the eye and also requires high end microscope fitted with special lens system which gives a wide angle view of the entire retina.
Distorted or blurry vision is alarming, and it may happen if you develop a macular hole. It is a tiny gap that opens up in the macula area located at the center of the retina.
The cornea is the outermost clear, transparent integral layer located in the front of the iris and pupil. It is responsible for the involuntary eyelids reflex and helps to focus the light on the retina. Any change in the cornea layer consistency causes altered vision. With a decrease in transparency of this layer, blurred vision can occur.
Normally, patients use the words ‘eye transplant’. However, like other organ or tissue transplant surgeries, an actual eye transplant is not possible yet. Even with the help of current modern tools and equipment, eye doctors cannot transplant the entire eye through surgery. It is not possible to remove the whole eye from an individual and transplant it into another patient to improve eye condition or vision.
Common vision or eye-related problems include farsightedness, nearsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. To correct such problems, ‘refractive surgery’ is carried out. The surgical eye procedure helps reduce dependence on contact lenses or eyeglasses. Today, several types of effective surgical procedures are available, but LASIK surgery is the most popular one.
Keratoconus (kerato: Cornea; konos: Cone) is a Greek word. It is a multifactorial non-inflammatory, progressive disease with biomechanical, biochemical, genetic, and environmental pathophysiology. Keratoconus is characterized by a steepening and thinning of the central and paracentral cornea causing myopia and irregular astigmatism. This eye disease affects approximately 1/2000 people of all races and both sexes equally. The onset of this disease is during the second decade of life around puberty. Keratoconus is bilateral and asymmetric ectatic eye condition which progresses until life’s fourth decade.
Vitrectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vitreous gel that fills the posterior chamber/cavity of the eye is removed to treat eye problems associated with retina or the vitreous. This surgery offers better access to the retina of the eye for different treatments like repair of retinal detachments, removal of scar tissue and treatment of macular holes.
Children with poor vision, uncorrected eye conditions or eye health problems face many challenges in life, socially, academically, and athletically. Ensuring proper eye care is the primary responsibility of the parents. Regular eye check-ups help a lot in securing a child’s future as ophthalmologists diagnose and treat eye-related diseases.